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1977, 197: 215-223. statement and While humans have 23 pairs, this number varies across species. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Wilson Bulletin. According to The Oxford English Dictionary, promiscuous originally referred to repeated, indiscriminate actions: “That is without discrimination or method: confusedly mingled, indiscriminate (1605) … Of an agent or agency: making no distinctions: undiscriminating (1633) … casual, carelessly irregular (1837)” [1]. The researchers found that, unlike the first event, gene loss after the second doubling occurred unevenly across the two sets of chromosomal copies – a surprising but informative feature. Promiscuity is frequently, but largely incorrectly used to describe animal mating behaviour, perhaps reflecting an erroneous adoption of common language to pique reader interest. The term ‘promiscuity’ sneaked into the lexicon of evolutionary biology last century, particularly to describe mating behaviour e.g. “We can use these similarities to trace our evolution and infer biology from the distant past,” said Professor Rokhsar, “If a group of genes is carried together on the same chromosomes in two very different animals – say, snails and sea stars – then these genes were also likely together on the same chromosome in their last common ancestor.”. Promiscuity in the Paleozoic: Researchers uncover clues about vertebrate evolution ... (OIST), alongside an international team of collaborators, have used another tool – the chromosomes of living animals – to uncover clues about our past. Further analysis of the scientific impact of papers identified by the term promiscuous or polyandrous revealed that the former were cited less frequently. This contrasts with its use as a descriptor for multiple mating behaviour, because the implied indiscriminating mate selection process is broadly wrong. “This kind of uneven gene loss is the hallmark of a genome duplication that follows the hybridization of two species,” said Professor Rokhsar. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol. Rare Cretaceous-Age Fossil Opens New Chapter in Story of Bird Evolution, Water-to-Land Transition in Early Tetrapods, Promiscuity in the Paleozoic: Researchers uncover clues about vertebrate evolution, Neanderthal Thumbs Better Adapted to Holding Tools With Handles, Ancient Blanket Made With 11,500 Turkey Feathers, T. Rex Had Huge Growth Spurts, But Other Dinos Grew “Slow and Steady”, Ireland’s Only Dinosaurs Discovered in Antrim, The Secret Hellfire Club and the Hellfire Caves. HeritageDaily is a dedicated, independent publisher of the latest research and discoveries from across the academic community with a focus on archaeology, anthropology, palaeoanthropology and palaeontology. Cookies policy. We explored the potential motivation for and consequences of using the term promiscuous by evaluating the citation metrics for papers retrieved by searches in Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters). Science. PubMed  We investigated whether polyandrous females were simultaneously described as promiscuous and exhibiting discriminating mate choice in papers published in a representative journal, Animal Behaviour. For papers in which ‘promiscuous’ was applied to females or both sexes (37 papers), female choice was demonstrated or suggested by the authors themselves in 18 instances, while in 15 cases there was no published evidence of female choice (four cases were excluded as the papers were theoretical reviews or meta-analyses). Emlen ST, Oring LW: Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. The resulting offspring have twice as many chromosomes as their mismatched parents – and are often more vigorous. Genomic studies have confirmed and refined this suggestion, but how many doublings there were, and how and when they occurred, are still debated. 1994, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Ecology. Promiscuous words. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. Yet this use of the term is incorrect, perhaps reflecting an erroneous adoption of common language to pique reader interest. 10.2307/2410684. Springer Nature. Indeed, records of truly promiscuous mating strategies, in which females (or males) mated indiscriminately would be remarkable, and predicted, for example, when the costs of mate choice are exorbitant. But very occasionally, in some fish, frogs, and plants, the hybrid genome becomes doubled to restore chromosomal pairing. 10.1001/jama.1939.62800140010011. Copyright © 2020 Archaeology Wiki | All Rights Reserved. The second duplication is shared only by jawed vertebrates. Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the biggest meat-eating dinosaurs of all time--it measured up to 42 feet long from snout to tail and would have weighed in at around 16,000 pounds.

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