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3. Firms that use direct distribution require their own logistics teams and transport vehicles. This channel of distribution involves manufacturers using the services of agents or brokers to connect with wholesalers and retailers. telemarketer would not mind sharing a part of his commission because he understands that if it were not for the salesperson’s help, the smaller Account would not have been converted. Customers’ reactions to these new relationships and responsibilities are very important. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. And retailers finally sell the product to the ultimate consumers. v. It is important to define the target market segment and design an appropriate marketing mix. the re­tailer. The last is also an example of vertical integration. It is widely used in the distribution of consumer products like groceries, drugs, cosmetics, etc. This channel is also suitable when the goods are of a perishable nature, and quick distribution is essential. Industrial goods requiring effective servicing by expert for which producer is the best, Here, goods are sold by manufacturer to retailer who sells to consumer. The last channel, from the producer-sole agent-wholesaler- retailer to the consumer, the used by some producers. Producer Retailer → Consumer…… (One Level/Intermediary) 2. There are advantages and disadvantages to direct distribution channels. Small producers and producers of perishable commodities also sell directly to local consumers. This can increase the cost to the consumer, slow down delivery and take control out of the manufacturer's hands. In this category fail such goods as complex machinery involving high technology, computers and luxury cars. A manufacturer may plan to sell his/her products either directly or indirectly to the customers. Storage warehouses hold goods for moderate along periods. (v) If the buyers prefer direct marketing. More than one person claimed compensation for one sale. Types of Distribution Channels – Direct and Indirect Channel (With Examples and Methods) A. With the right relationship, they are much simpler to manage than direct distribution channels. (d) Products are not subject to change due to changes in fashion. In year 2, sales did not increase. Credit function – It consists of providing credit to another member of a distribution channel. Adding new channels is imperative when requirements of customers become diverse. The role of the distribution channel is to transfer goods and services efficiently. Some of the pure wholesalers have vans which visit outlying retailers and supply goods to them. It sells indirectly to business segment 1 through distributors and dealers, and to business segment 2 through its own salesforce. The goods are sold by the producers directly to the consumers under this system, and it is usually preferred in case of perishable products like bread, milk, ice-cream, fish, meat, egg, vegetables and agricultural products, etc. It satisfies the desire to reduce dependence on middle men. But soon it found that smaller businesses were interested in its product. How many warehouses should be used? With each new channel, the company expands its sales and market coverage and gains opportunities to tailor its products and services to the specific needs of diverse customer segments. Under this system, distribution of goods is performed by middlemen or intermediaries like wholesalers’ stockiest distributions etc. This is the simplest form of distribution channel which involves the manufacturer and the consumers. Large infrequent costs raise inventory costs but lower processing expenditure. A company can use anyone or a combination of following means for transporting their goods: 1. Producer → Retailer → Consumer ……. The sole agent, in turn, may distribute to wholesalers who, in their turn, distribute to retailers. Tradeoffs are often necessary, for instance, low inventory and slow, cheaper transportation methods reduce costs but lower customer service levels and satisfaction as well. Physical distribution manager should reconcile the conflicts inherent in the system so that total costs are minimized, subject to required customer service levels. The second channel, from the producer-retailer to the consumers, is preferable where the purchasers of goods are big retailers like department stores, chain stores, super markets or consumer co-operative stores. 4. 4. It is used to transport perishable and emergency goods. But it is important to ask these questions each time the company decides to add another channel because each time a channel is added the existing relationships, responsibilities, and compensation structure among various channel members are altered. Some customers’ value consistency in delivery time rather than speed (guaranteed delivery within 5 days each time. Consumer durables such as TVs, refrigerators, scooters, washing machines, cars and indus­trial machinery and equipment are generally sold through this channel. Note that these areas were not in the prime High Street sites. 5. At one extreme is one large warehouse to serve the entire market, at the other extreme is a number of smaller warehouses that are based near the local markets. The optimum number and location of warehouses is a balance between customer service and cost considerations. However, the manufacturer will have to undertake such functions as transportation, warehousing and financing. Also known as One – level Channel, i. Salesmen of manufacturers visit and collect orders from retailers. iii. Indirect marketing does not aim at a specific consumer audience as does direct marketing. 3. Multi-channel marketing like these occurs when a single firm sets up two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments. Manufacturers appoint agents in major areas who in turn connect them to wholesalers and retailers. The same goes for indirect channels. ii. Air – Advantages are speed and long distance capabilities. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! The retailer’s commercial space comes between the producer and the consumer; therefore, it is indirect.

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