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Metaphysics is the philosophical branch that studies reality, existence, the nature of being, the physical world, and the universe. I hope you enjoy my next philosophy posts. And the list goes on. What is a justified belief, and what makes it justified? For the most part, we wouldn't expect many problems with such a straightforward task. But then would such a criterion thereby entail that a medium potato does not exist? When one thinks oneself out of a box, it’s only a matter of time before we’ve thought ourselves into another box to think out of. So, as you can see, I am a person that needs structure otherwise I’m all over the place. It seeks to explain how we acquire knowledge, how knowledge relates to notions like justification, truth, and belief, and how and where it falls in the spectrum of certainty and error. Logic is the branch of philosophy that studies reasoning. Evidently, therefore, the relation existing between and the sciences will be, to some extent, one of reciprocal influence. Last on our list is Politics or Political Philosophy. Calendar. ( Log Out /  On this view, we could be justified in believing somethings true if it is highly probable, but we would not be justified in believing something if it has a very low probability of being true. As you can already tell from its name Political Philosophy examines various concepts related to politics, government, laws, liberty, justice, rights, authority, state, and even ethics (ethical ruling). "each should then have to fight off the others in order to perform his moral obligation to get to the grenade first.". How was the universe made? Fechner's experiment has been repeated with variations in methodology many times and occasionally his results have been supported. Every day, I read a few pages from each book—but it’s a real struggle not to add another one to that pile. Metaphysics studies the nature and existence of things. Friday 2020-11-20, 13:00. What makes a government work? It’s a study that teaches us what the virtuous life is like and how we can put these virtues into practice. A typical example of an ontological problem is the well-known difficulty of finding "a criterion of individuation" for distinguishing things. It delves into the definition, scope, and parameters of knowledge and knowledge formation. It is important to point out however that these characteristics are not " the be-all and end-all" of philosophy. Golden Section, Whirlpool Galaxy; Air Currents from Flue Organ, and Sunflower. Etc. The coherence of the whole is made possible by consistent fundamental principles. How do we know what we know? Main Divisions of Philosophy. Start studying The Divisions of Philosophy. How can you distinguish between a good argument and a bad argument? Would it be reasonable to conclude, then, that beauty is merely a mathematical relationship? It posits and attempts to answer questions like What is government? All the branches of philosophy are important. Watch Queue Queue. It seeks answers to questions like, what is valid reasoning? It’s a thinking subject. Although the term "axiology" is not widely used outside of philosophy, the problems of axiology include (1) how values are experienced, (2) the kinds of value, (3) the standards of value, and (4) in what sense values can be said to exist. The Division of Philosophy at KTH was founded in 1999. The 1911 Edition Encyclopædia "Philosophy" The Website is a copyright-free reproduction of the 1911 edition of the Encycolpædia Britannica but is not so-labeled because of trademark concerns. How can we say that the world exists outside of our thoughts? Does our right to self-preservation supersede our obligation to save the lives of other persons? It is quite unreasonable to suppose that such a man must be impelled by the sort of emotion that he might be impelled by if his best friend were in the squad.[5]. This video is unavailable. This includes how we define art, how we feel when viewing art or witnessing beauty, how we judge works of art, and how we form our taste. It is a study that asks big questions like what is knowledge? It was divided into three departments; logic, ethic, and physic. Philosophy 101 What does “right” even mean? ( Log Out /  This division indeed was in existence before their time, but they have got the credit of it as of some other things which they did not originate. This task of co-ordination, in the broadest sense, is undertaken by philosophy; for the philosopher is essentially what Plato, in a happy moment, styled him, &sgr;&ugr;&ngr;&ogr;&pgr;&tgr;&igr;&kgr;&oacgr;&sgr;, the man who takes a "synoptic" or comprehensive view of the universe as a whole. Of course, within these themes/branches are even more philosophical movements that give birth to more studies—seemingly ad infinitum. If we admit existence of medium potatoes, then our "criterion of potato-ness" must be revised to take account of the "newly discovered entity" of the medium potato. His action undoubtedly saved lives; certainly, an action which saves lives is a morally correct action. truly, known in their relation to the whole. If he did not cover the grenade, probably several soldiers would be killed. J. O. Urmson. "…he was fed up with high school and college instructors trying to teach him how to think, using the 'scientific method. Can the distinction between intrinsic and instrumental values be maintained? It’s meant to move us forward, oftentimes by looking backwards. Visit the Foundation for Creating A Mind With Heart and start exploring the true nature of your own Heart and Mind and how it creates your physical life experience. In a sense, Philosophy is a type of Science, a reservoir of knowledge which can only be understood through rigorous investigation and study. One might even be inclined to conclude that saving lives is a duty. Moreover, how would these mathematical observations be related to the widespread belief that truly remarkable artists are those who break the rules or laws of past artistic works? Philosophy corrects in this way the abstractions which are inevitably made by the scientific specialist, and may claim, therefore, to be the only "concrete" science, that is to say, the only science which takes account of all the elements in the problem, and the only science whose results can claim to be true in more than a provisional sense.[2]. How can we acquire knowledge? Philosophy (from Greek: φιλοσοφία, philosophia, 'love of wisdom') is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. [4]. Admittedly, these brief descriptions and examples do not adequate reflect the nature of philosophy, and they are not especially typical problems. (2) Metaphysics or Ontology (theory of reality): the inquiry into what is real as opposed to what is appearance, either conceived as that which the methods of science presuppose, or that with which the methods of science are concerned; the inquiry into the first principles of nature; the study of the most fundamental generalizations as to what exists. But if this is so, it may be asked what function can remain for philosophy when every portion of the field is already lotted out and enclosed by specialists? It contains rules for formulating arguments and ordering thought so as to come to … http://www.evphil.com/philosophy-101.html The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Thanks for dropping by! As you explore the branches of philosophy, remember to keep Metaphysics first and foremost. But that is the nature of philosophy. That being said, on to today’s learnings. There are also various subdivisions within the three branches, such as ethics and aesthetics. "The golden section is directly connected with the Fibonacci numbers and the basis of the spiral. What is the difference between a matter of fact and a matter of value? Note the structure of this argument can be seen as a reductio ad absurdum. I have been blessed with a very short attention span, which means that I am almost-hopeless at single-tasking. How could it ever be known that the creation of the universe did not occur five minutes ago? Should we admit the existence of medium-large and medium-small potatoes? 20. What if such an action were to save the world from nuclear destruction? Now, more than ever, we need philosophy to guide us (and especially our leaders) through these tough times. But, of course, there is a problem. And so on, and so forth. All of them are interrelated. Ethics involves the theoretical study of the moral valuation of human action—it's not just concerned with the study of principles of conduct.

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